The reason why these pumps are designed differently is due to the fact that their motor needs to be sealed off to prevent any water from getting to the electric’s.
The other issue with regular pumps is their tendency to cavitate which causes significant damage to the impeller with repetition. An issue that arises due to high elevation difference between the pump and the fluid surface and air bubbles entering the pump volute.
This issue is resolved due to the manner in which the submersible pump is designed.
Electric submersible pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps operating in a vertical position. Liquids, accelerated by the impeller, lose their kinetic energy in the diffuser where a conversion of kinetic to pressure energy takes place. This is the main operational mechanism of radial and mixed flow pumps.
The pump shaft is connected to the gas separator or the protector by a mechanical coupling at the bottom of the pump. Fluids enter the pump through an intake screen and are lifted by the pump stages. Other parts include the radial bearings (bushings) distributed along the length of the shaft providing radial support to the pump shaft. An optional thrust bearing takes up part of the axial forces arising in the pump but most of those forces are absorbed by the protector’s thrust bearing.
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